A New Scientist book review:
Bekoff and Pierce make their case by calling on a wide range of animal studies, from field biology to the laboratory and from the anecdotal to the statistical. … [In an] experiment, rats refused to push a lever for food when they realised their action meant another animal got an electric shock.
Some possible responses:
- Apparent animal "morality" isn't real morality, because it lacks human factor X.
- To the extent animal morality differs from human, animals are just wrong.
- Each species only intuitively knows what it is moral for that species to do.
- Creature have preferences and social norms; there is no further "morality."